Application Of Integration In Real Life Pdf Download !LINK!
The global urgency to improve STEM education may be driven by environmental and social impacts of the twenty-first century which in turn jeopardizes global security and economic stability. The complexity of these global factors reach beyond just helping students achieve high scores in math and science assessments. Friedman (The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century, 2005) helped illustrate the complexity of a global society, and educators must help students prepare for this global shift. In response to these challenges, the USA experienced massive STEM educational reforms in the last two decades. In practice, STEM educators lack cohesive understanding of STEM education. Therefore, they could benefit from a STEM education conceptual framework. The process of integrating science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in authentic contexts can be as complex as the global challenges that demand a new generation of STEM experts. Educational researchers indicate that teachers struggle to make connections across the STEM disciplines. Consequently, students are often disinterested in science and math when they learn in an isolated and disjoined manner missing connections to crosscutting concepts and real-world applications. The following paper will operationalize STEM education key concepts and blend learning theories to build an integrated STEM education framework to assist in further researching integrated STEM education.
application of integration in real life pdf download
Although the idea of STEM education has been contemplated since the 1990s in the USA, few teachers seemed to know how to operationalize STEM education several decades later. Americans realized the country may fall behind in the global economy and began to heavily focus on STEM education and careers (Friedman 2005). STEM funding for research and education then increased significantly in the USA (Sanders 2009). The urgency to improve achievement in American Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics education is evident by the massive educational reforms that have occurred in the last two decades within these STEM education disciplines (AAAS 1989, 1993; ABET 2004; ITEA 1996, 2000, 2002, 2007; NCTM 1989, 2000; NRC 1989, 1994, 1996, 2012). Although these various documents seek to leverage best practices in education informed by research on how people learn (NRC 2000a, 2000b), competing theories and agendas may have added confusion to the complexity of integrating STEM subjects. Recent reforms such as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States 2013) and Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate for purposefully integrating STEM by providing deeper connections among the STEM domains. One of the most recent NAE and NRC (2014) documents, STEM Integration in K-12 Education: Status, Prospects, and an Agenda for Research, recognize problems with competing agendas, lack of coherent effort, and locating and teaching intersections for STEM integration. The Committee on Integrated STEM Education was charged to assist STEM education stakeholders by (a) carefully identifying and characterizing existing approaches to integrated STEM education, (b) review evidence of impact on student learning, and (c) help determine priorities for research on integrated STEM education. This report was created as a way to move STEM educators forward by creating a common language of STEM integration for research and practice. This effort indicates that further work remains to improve STEM integration in practice and establishes a need to conduct more research on integrated STEM education (NAE and NRC 2014).
Research in integrated STEM can inform STEM education stakeholders to identify barriers as well as determine best practices. A conceptual framework is helpful to build a research agenda that will in turn inform STEM stakeholders to realize the full potential of integrated STEM education. We propose a conceptual framework around learning theories and pedagogies that will lead to achieving key learning outcomes. Developing a conceptual framework for STEM education requires a deep understanding of the complexities surrounding how people learn, specifically teaching and learning STEM content. Research shows STEM education teaching is enhanced when the teacher has sufficient content knowledge and domain pedagogical content knowledge (Nadelson et al. 2012). Instead of teaching content and skills and hoping students will see the connections to real-life application, an integrated approach seeks to locate connections between STEM subjects and provide a relevant context for learning the content. Educators should remain true to the nature in which science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are applied to real-world situations. The Next Generation Science Standards (NRC 2012) suggest closer study of practices may help to provide a framework for integrating STEM subjects.
When engaging students into a community of practice, we suggest that the learning outcomes be grounded in common shared practices. Community of practice can provide opportunity to engage local community experts as STEM partners such as practicing scientists, engineers, and technologists who can help focus the learning around real-life STEM contexts regardless of the pedagogical approach.
The C3 Framework, like the Common Core State Standards, emphasizes the acquisition and application of knowledge to prepare students for college, career, and civic life. It intentionally envisions social studies instruction as an inquiry arc of interlocking and mutually reinforcing elements that speak to the intersection of ideas and learners. The Four Dimensions highlighted below center on the use of questions to spark curiosity, guide instruction, deepen investigations, acquire rigorous content, and apply knowledge and ideas in real world settings to become active and engaged citizens in the 21st century.
With so many business applications, data types, and middleware technologies, IT architects are often faced with tough design decisions to deliver the most efficient integration solution that meets business requirements in a cost-efficient and timely manner. In this series of blogs, we will provide guidance on decomposing integration problems into their most basic and fundamental integration use cases. We further introduce the technologies and integration patterns that can be used to deliver those use cases.
While there are many business scenarios for application and data integration, we believe that every business scenario can be broken down into the following unique and fundamental integration use cases. These use cases are building blocks and can be combined to develop more involved and complex use cases.
For a given piece of data, there is generally a well-defined system of record where its lifecycle is managed. However, that data is often required within other systems to complete the business transactions within those applications. The data changes faster in the system of record and is required near real-time in the consuming applications. Consuming applications may further enrich or update certain information. More often than not, these consuming systems should not act as systems of record. 350c69d7ab